CE Course 3 - Figures

Figure 1.Drug Categories      

Categories & Effects

Specific Drugs

Brand / Street names

Signs and symptoms

Treatment
Cannabinoids: Produce euphoria, exhilaration, altered time sense, and at high doses, hallucinations Marijuana


Hashish
grass, joint, MJ, pot, tea, ganja, sinsemilla, reefer,

Acapulco gold, Thai sticks
Hash, bhang, rope
Paranoia, dry mouth, tremors, bloodshot eyes, lowered body temperature, ataxia, drowsiness, depression, severe sweating, may become extremely hungry Addresses acute episodes, temporary psychotic states, toxic reactions; treat with reassurance in a quiet atmosphere.
CNS stimulants: Stimulate the cortex and promote electrical activity in brain and spinal cord; produce alertness, elevate mood, alleviate fatigue. Amphetamines
Benzphetamine
Cocaine
Crack cocaine
Dextroamphetamine
Benzedrine, black beauties, RJS Didrex® Snow, blow, gold dust, flake Crack, rock Dexedrine®, uppers, speed, dexies, oranges, hearts Rapid pulse, increased respiratory rate, elevated body temperature, grand mal convulsions, suspicious-ness, repetitive touching, picking at objects and parts of the body Psychotic or delusional patients are hospitalized and placed in a non-threatening atmosphere. Antipsychotics are administered when needed.
CNS depressants: Depress all excitable tissues, particularly those of the CNS, causing slight lethargy, sleepiness, anesthesia. Alprazolam
Chlorodiazepoxide
Diazeparn
Triazolam
Amobarbitol
Butabarbital
Butalbital
Pentobarbital
Secobarbital
Xanax®
Librium®
Valium®
Halcion®
Amytal®
Butisol sodium®
Florinal, Sedapap
Nembutal®
Seconal®
Confusion, reduced CNS, cardiac, and respiratory functioning, anxiety, insomnia, severe panic attack, hyerpyrexia, muscle spasm, death Decreasing doses of Phenobarbital or benzodiazepines, to ease withdrawal. Long-term treatment, using behavior modification to change lifestyle.
Opiates: Produce drowsiness, mood changes, euphoria. Heroin
Opium
Morphine
Hydromorphone
Codeine
Diphenoxylate
Propoxyphene
Meperidine
Brown, H, horse, junk, skag Black, poppy, tar M, microdots
Dilaudick®
Codeine
Lomotik®
Darvon®, pinks & grays
Demerol®
Pigmented, clotted veins, skin lesions, abscesses, finger clubbing, constricted pupils, blue lips, pale bode color, pulmonary edema, cardiac arrhythmias, convulsions, swollen lymph glands, and enlarged liver. For withdrawal symptoms, hospitalize for detoxifica-tion; outpatient programs. Narcotics Anonymous Treatment of chronic pain that caused narcotic abuse.
Hallucinogens: Increase sensory receptor sensitivity, feelings of enhanced mental activity, a sense of novelty concerning usual events and surroundings, inward thinking, and a decreased ability to disassociate oneself from one’s surroundings. Lysergic acid
diethylamide (LSD)
Mescaline
Psilocybin
MDA (methylene
dioxyamphetamine)
MDMA (methylenedioxy-methamphetamne)
Methamphetamine
Methamphet, freebase
Methylphenidate
Acid, microdot, cube,
Owsleys
Catus, mescal, buttons
Love drug
Adam, ecstasy, X-TC
Desoxyn®, speed, crystal,
whites
Ice
Ritalin®
Dilated pupils, flushed face, fine tremors, increased blood pressure, elevated blood sugar, increased body tempera-ture, panic reactions, flashbacks, blurred vision. MDA (methylene dioxyamphetamine) & MDMA (methylene dioxymethamphetamine, which causes body temperatures to excess of 103° F) can cause cardiovascular collapse and severe convulsions. Patients placed in quiet rooms, reassured symptoms will disappear within hours or days. In cases of toxic reactions, treatment includes medications to calm patients down, treat convulsions and fever, and maintain an airway.
Phencyclidine (PCP) and analogs: An anesthetic for humans and animals. Alters both mood and conscious-ness, distorts hearing, touch, smell, taste and visual sensations. PCP
PCE
PCPY
TCP
Angel dust, aurora, busy bee, cheap cocaine, crystal cyclone, elephant tranquilizer, rocket fuel, hog, love boat Disorientation, numbness in extremities; chronic abuse may cause damage to cognitive abilities, memory, and fine motor skills; doses over 10 mg may lead to catatonia and psychosis. Restrain or calm patients with toxic symptoms or psychosis; generally treated by offering patients a quiet environment where they can’t hurt themselves or others. No antidote to PCP intoxication; treat symptomatically.
Glues, solvents, aerosol sprays: Effects last 15-45 minutes: giddiness, euphoria, lightheaded-ness, decreased inhibitions, illusions, drowsiness, amnesia Toluene, naphtha, acetate, hexane, xylene, chloroform, ether, gasoline, paint thinner, fluorinated hydrocarbons, freon, bromochloro-difluoromethane Numerous brand names Panic reactions, flashbacks, toxic reactions, psychosis and depression, organic brain syndrome. Symptoms are often transient and disappear without treatment. General supportive care is called for. In severe cases of liver or kidney damages, more intensive treatment is required.
Anabolic-androgenic Steroids: Enhance muscular capacity, reduce body fat in favor of lean mass, increase strength and endurance, and recovery from pain associated with exercises. Testosterone cypionate Nandrolone Phenpropionate Nandrolone decanoate Fluoxymesterone Methyltestosterone Oxymetholone Stanozolol Depo®-Testosterone
Deca Durabolin®
Halotestin®
Android®, Metandren®,
Testred® Virilon®
Anadrok®-50
Winstrok®
Impaired cognition, mood, and behavior, “road rage, cardiovascular problems, hepatic lesions, hepatic tumors, depression, increased risk of tumors, stunted growth, male pattern baldness Nutritional counseling and consultation with exercise physiologist control severe aggression, hostility, and acute mania. In severe cases, hospitalization, low dose neuroleptics, and/or antidepressant
Prescription drugs: Induce euphoria, a transient feel-ing of the relief of depres-sion; with abuse, one can experience a “high” Trihexyphenidyl
Benztropine
Biperiden
Procyclidine
Ethopropaxine
Artane®
Cogentin®
Akineton®
Kemadrin®
Parsidol®
Confusion, agitation, anxiety, abdominal distension, urinary retention, dry mouth, difficulty swallowing, light sensitive, blurred vision, rash on face, upper neck Counseling, change of medications, use of diuretics
Over-the-counter drugs: Relieve minor aches and pains, constipation, and a variety of other ills Pyrilamine
Diphenhydramine
Doxylamine
Scopolamine
Laxatives
Weak analgesics
Somines®
Miles Nevine®
Unisom®

Ex-Lax®
Sedative abuse or overuse may cause dry mouth, tremors, double vision, lethargy, weakness& occasionally insomnia.

Laxative abuse can cause respiratory and cardiac
problems
Treatment focuses on symptoms



Figure 2.Dopamine and reward deficiency syndrome  

Addictive behavior

Impulse behavior

Compulsive behavior

Personality behavior
Severe alcholism

Attention deficit disorder

Hyperactivity

Aberrant sexual bahavior Conduct disorder
Polysubstance abuse Tourette's Syndrome   Antisocial behavior
Smoker Autism Pathological gambling Aggressive behavior
Blum K, et al.: Reward Deficiency Syndrome, American Scientist, 84 (2): 132-145, 1996